A report on scientific development released by UNESCO today confirmed that the cost of research and development worldwide has increased by 19% over a specified period, while the number of researchers has increased by 13.7%.
However, the report warns that the United States and China alone are responsible for two-thirds (63%) of that progress, while most countries lag far behind and invest less than 1% of their gross domestic product (GDP) in science. Investigation.
The United States invested 2.84% of its GDP in 2018, China 2.19%, while Latin America spent only 0.66% on average.
The EU was also behind the two major powers, investing 2.03% of its GDP in research and development.
Brazil spent 1.26% of GDP.
The document, entitled "Race Against Time for Better Development", pointed out that UNESCO is particularly dynamic in artificial intelligence and robotics.
In 2019 alone, nearly 150,000 articles were published in these two areas. Middle and low-income countries accelerated their contribution to these publications, rising from 12.8% in 2015 to 25.3% in 2019.
UNESCO stressed that "there are important areas of research, but they attract very little investment."
“In 2019, research on carbon capture and storage generated only 2,500 articles, which is 60 times less than artificial intelligence,” he points out.
Similarly, the sustainable energy sector has not been explored much, as it will account for only 2.5% of global output in 2019.
"Current challenges – related to climate change, biodiversity loss, ocean health or epidemics – are now on the planet, so they must mobilize scientists and researchers from around the world," underscored by UNESCO Director-General, Frenchwoman Audrey Assoulay.
The authors pointed out the low presence of women: only 22% of the staff working on the development of artificial intelligence are women.
It says, "Not only the present, but also the future is an obstacle because the science of the future cannot allow inequalities to reproduce or expand in society."