The Cowley Institute for the Universe’s Physics and Mathematics (Cowley IBMU) owns a number of intermediate projects that benefit from the synergy of the diversity of expertise available within the organization. One such project is the study of black holes that may have formed at the beginning of the universe before stars and galaxies were born.
Such primitive black holes (pH) can compute all or part of a dark matter and are responsible for some of the observations. Gravitational waves Signals and seed supermassive black holes found at the center of our galaxy and other galaxies. They may also play a role in the formation of heavier components when neutrons collide with stars and destroy them, releasing neutron-rich matter.
In particular, there is a wonderful possibility that the mysterious dark matter responsible for most things in the universe was made up of primitive black holes. The Nobel Prize in Physics in 2020 was awarded to one theorist Roger Benrose and two astronomers Reinhard Jensel and Andrea Guess for their discoveries that confirmed the existence of black holes. As black holes are known to exist in nature, they form the most attractive candidate for dark matter.
The latest advances in basic theory, astrophysics and astronomical observations for the search for PPHs have been made by particle physicists, astronomers and cosmologists, including Cowley IBMU members Alexander Kuchenko, Mishao Sukiyama, Masahiro Takada and Volodymyrak.
To learn more about primitive black holes, the study team looked at the early universe for clues. The early universe was very dense, with positive density fluctuations of more than 50 percent a Black hole. However, the cosmic disturbances known to be very small in the seed galaxies. Nevertheless, many processes in the early universe may have created the right conditions for the formation of black holes.
An exciting possibility is that primitive black holes may have formed from the “child universes” created during inflation, which is believed to be a period of rapid expansion that has led to the sowing of structures such as galaxies and galaxies that we observe today. During inflation, child universes may branch out of our universe. A small child (or “daughter”) will eventually collapse into the universe, but the small amount of energy released will cause a black hole to form.
An even more strange fate awaits a larger baby universe. If it is larger than some significant dimension, Einstein’s theory of gravity allows the infant universe to be in a position to appear different to an observer inside and out. An inner observer sees it as an expanding universe, while an external observer (like us) sees it as a black hole. In both, large and small child universes are seen by us as primitive black holes that obscure the basic structure of many universes behind their “event boundaries”. The event horizon is a boundary, and everything below it, even light, is trapped and cannot escape from the black hole.
In their study, the team described a new scenario for the creation of the PPH and showed that black holes could be seen from the “Multiverse” display using the Hyper Supreme-Cam (HSC) of the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. Cowley IBMU plays a key role – near the 4,200-meter summit of the Mount. Manana Key in Hawaii. Cowley is the lead investigator at IBMU, Masahiro Takada and his team on their exciting extension of PPH’s HSC search. The HSC team has recently announced leading restrictions on the presence of PPHs in Nikura, Takada and elsewhere. Al. Natural Astronomy 3, 524–534 (2019)
Why is HSC essential in this research? HSC has the unique ability to film the entire Andromeda galaxy every few minutes. As a black hole passes through the line of sight to a line, the black hole’s gravitational light bends and appears brighter than before. The duration of the star’s brightness tells astronomers the mass of the black hole. With HSC observations, it is possible to observe hundreds of millions of stars simultaneously, sending a vast web of primitive black holes that can cross one of the lines of sight.
The first HSC observations have already reported an interesting candidate event similar to that of a PPH from “Multiverse”, which is compared to the full moon with a black hole mass. Inspired by this first identity and guided by a new theoretical understanding, the team conducts a new round of observations to broaden the search and provide a definitive test on whether PPHs from the multiverses scene can be responsible for all the dark stuff.
Note: Alexander Kuchenko, Mishao Sasaki, Sunao Sukiyama, Masahiro Takada, Volodymyr Takistov and Eto’o Vittakliano, 30 October 2020, “Exploring primitive black holes from multiverses with optical telescopes” Physical examination letters.
DOI: 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.125.181304